If-Clause and Wish

If – Clause

Type I

Function :

Probable action/result in the future according to a real condition You’ll catch the train if you leave before ten.Form :

if / unless/ if……. not + present tense     +          future I: shall/will/can/may/might + verb
if – clause                                                          main clause

example :
If I learn my vocabulary, I’ll get a good mark 
if – clause                       main clause

shall / will / can / may / might + verb + present tense          +     if + simple present
main clause                                                                   if – clause

example :
I’ll get a good mark if I learn my vocabulary

 Type II

Function :

  • Possible action/result according to a less probable condition in the future

We’d have enough money for a new car if you found a good job.


  • Fantasized result or action according to an unreal (untrue) condition in the present

We’d buy a Rolls Royce if we were rich.
Form :
if/unless/if…..not past tense ,  +  conditional I : should/could,would/’d/might + verb
if-clause                                                       main clause

example :  If I learnt my vocabulary, I’d get a good mark

or the other way round :  I’d get a good mark if I learnt my vocabulary.

Type III

Function :

  •  If- clause:       unreal condition: the condition can’t be fulfilled any longer, because it should have happened in the past, but didn’t.
  • main clause:  the consequence can’t take place any more, because the condition couldn’t be fulfilled.

If I had learnt more (but I didn’t  learn=unreal condition), I would have got a better mark.
(So I didn’t get a  better mark= impossible  consequence)

or the other way round:

I would have got a better mark
(So I didn’t get a better mark= impossible consequence) if I had learnt more (but I didn’t  learn=unreal

Form :
If/unless/if…not past perfect,     +    conditional II: should/could/would/might + have + verb 

            If I had + -ed or 3rd form,                 + -ed or 3rd form

if-clause                                                                  main clause

example : If I had learnt my vocabulary, I would  have got a good mark
or the other way round :
I would have got a good mark if I had learnt my vocabulary.


Definition :


Similar to conditional sentences are those that use “wish” to express something isn’t true now, or it wasn’t true in the past.


Form :

Subject  1+ wish (that) + subject 2 + V2.

Subject  1+ wish (that) + subject 2 + were +NV=Non Verb.


note : ‘that’ is optionally.

Examples :

  • I wish that Sani spoke english fluently. ( In fact : Sani doesn’t speak english fluently)
  • I wish Jacob were coming to class. (In fact : Jacob isn’t coming to class)
  • I wish books were not expensive. ( Books are very expensive now)
  • I wish I had more money.(In fact, I don’t have more money)
  • She wishes he would talk to her more often.
  • They wish they hadn’t bought that house.
  • Yesterday Tom moved his chair and hurt his back. Now he wishes he hadn’t done that.
  • Tony wishes he had a job as a radio announcer.(he doesn’t have this job)
  • I wish I knew the answer. (I don’t know the answer)



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