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  • ami26chan 7:38 am on December 30, 2011 Permalink | Reply  

    transitive verb 

    1. Transitive Verbs
    A transitive verb is a verb that ‘transfers’ the action to and affects a noun (or substantive). This noun that it transfers motion to is called the ‘direct object‘. Therefore by the very nature of a transitive verb, it is a verb that requires a direct object. Conversely, if there is a verb that has a direct object, it must be a transitive verb. Without a direct object, the transitive verb would cause the sentence to be left hanging and seem incomplete.
    For example “Do not quench the spirit” (I Thess 5:19). The understood subject of the sentence is ‘you’ (required because of the imperative mood). (The verb, strictly speaking, is ‘do quench’; however, there is a very important adverb ‘not’ inserted here). If the sentence ended with “Do not quench,” the question could not help but be asked, “Do not quench what?” The verb ‘quench’ requires a direct object to complete the meaning of the sentence. Thus the noun ‘spirit’ is added as the direct object of the verb.

    Examples and Observations:

      • “I know the muffin man.”
        (Lord Farquaad, Shrek, 2001)

     

      • “We lost a daughter but gained a meathead.”
        (Archie Bunker in All in the Family, 1971)

     

      • “Parents lend children their experience and a vicarious memory.”
        (George Santayana, The Life of Reason)

     

      • “I punched Mickey Mantle in the mouth.”
        (Cosmo Kramer, Seinfeld)

     

      • “A musicologist is a man who can read music but can’t hear it.”
        (Sir Thomas Beecham)

     

      • Lay and Lie
        “There have been some difficulties with grammar since I last wrote. Lay is a transitive verb (I lay down a case of claret every month; she laid the table), lie an intransitive one (he lies over there; she lay in bed until noon). Do not confuse them.”
        (Simon Heffer, “Style Notes 28: February 12, 2010.” The Daily Telegraph)

     

      • “More exactly, we should talk about transitive or intransitive uses of certain verbs, as a great many verbs can be used in English both transitively and intransitively. Land is transitive in The pilot landed the plane safely, but intransitive in The plane landed. Carry is transitive in They carried backpacks, but it has an intransitive use in His voice carries well (= ‘projects’).”
        (Angela Downing, English Grammar: A University Course. Routledge, 2006)

     

    • Among transitive verbs there are three sub-types: monotransitive verbs have only a direct object, ditransitive verbs have a direct object and an indirect or benefactive object. Complex-transitive verbshave a direct object and an object attribute. . . .
      • monotransitive: He bought a book.
      • ditransitive: He gave her the book.
      • complex-transitive: She found the book interesting.

     

    Source : http://grammar.about.com/od/tz/g/tranverb02term.htm

    http://www.ntgreek.org/learn_nt_greek/terms.htm

     
  • ami26chan 3:57 am on December 6, 2011 Permalink | Reply  

    Passive Voice 

    Use of Passive

    Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, however, who or what is performing the action.

    Example: My bike was stolen.

    In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know, however, who did it.

    Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example shows:

    Example: A mistake was made.

    In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone (e.g. You have made a mistake.)

    Form of Passive

    Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs)

    Example: A letter was written.

    When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:

    • the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
    • the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
    • the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

    Example of Passive

     

     

    Passive Sentences with Two Objects

    Rewriting an active sentence with two objects in passive voice means that one of the two objects becomes the subject, the other one remains an object. Which object to transform into a subject depends on what you want to put the focus on.

    As you can see in the examples, adding by Rita does not sound very elegant. That’s why it is usually dropped.

    Personal and Impersonal Passive

    Personal Passive simply means that the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. So every verb that needs an object (transitive verb) can form a personal passive.

    Example: They build houses. – Houses are built.
    Verbs without an object (intransitive verb) normally cannot form a personal passive sentence (as there is no object that can become the subject of the passive sentence). If you want to use an intransitive verb in passive voice, you need an impersonal construction – therefore this passive is called Impersonal Passive.

    Example: he says – it is said
    Impersonal Passive is not as common in English as in some other languages (e.g. German, Latin). In English, Impersonal Passive is only possible with verbs of perception (e. g. say, think, know).

    Example: They say that women live longer than men. – It is said that women live longer than men.
    Although Impersonal Passive is possible here, Personal Passive is more common.

    Example: They say that women live longer than men. – Women are said to live longer than men.
    The subject of the subordinate clause (women) goes to the beginning of the sentence; the verb of perception is put into passive voice. The rest of the sentence is added using an infinitive construction with ‘to’ (certain auxiliary verbs and that are dropped).

    Sometimes the term Personal Passive is used in English lessons if the indirect object of an active sentence is to become the subject of the passive sentence.

    source : http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/passive

     
  • ami26chan 3:49 am on December 6, 2011 Permalink | Reply  

    Conditional Sentences 

    Conditional (Kalimat Pengandaian) menjelaskan bahwa sebuah kegiatan bertentangan dengan kegiatan yang lain. Conditional yang paling umum adalahReal Conditonal dan Unreal Conditonal, kadang-kadang disebut juga if-clauses.

    Real Conditional (sering juga disebut juga dengan Conditional Tipe I) yang menggambarkan tentang mengandai-andai sesuai dengan fakta.

    Unreal Conditional (sering juga disebut sebagai Conditional Tipe II) yang menggambarkan tentang pengandaian yang tidak nyata atau berimajinasi.

    Ada juga Conditional yang ke-3 yang sering disebut dengan Conditional Tipe III, digunakan sebagai penyesalan yang terjadi di masa lampau dan zero conditional, digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sesuatu yang sudah pasti benar.

    Catatan: Jika  klausa “if” diletakkan di awal kalimat, kita harus menggunakan “koma”. Sebaliknya jika klausa “if” berada di belakang, maka tidak perlu ada koma

    Zero Conditional

    Digunakan untuk mengekspresikan kebenaran umum. Tense yang digunakan biasanya Present Simple Tense

    Rumus

    (Klausa IF)

    (Induk Kalimat)

    If you heat water to 100 degrees Celsius,

    it boils.

    Atau

    (Induk Kalimat)

    (Klausa IF)

    Water boils

    if you heat it to 100 degrees Celsius,

    Contoh:

    • If you drop an apple, it falls. = An apple falls, if you drop it.
    • If you don’t do your homework, I will be disappointed. = I will be disappointed, if you don’t do your homework.

    Catatan: Pada tipe ini, “if” sering digantikan dengan “when

    Conditional I

    Digunakan untuk mengekspresikan pengandaian yang dibuat berdasarkan fakta di masa sekarang atau masa yang akan datang dan pengandaian ini bisa saja terjadi. Klausa “if” biasanya dalam bentuk Present Simple Tense.

    Rumus

    (Klausa IF)

    (Induk Kalimat)

    If I see you tomorrow,

    I will buy you a drink.

    Atau

    (Induk Kalimat)

    (Klausa IF)

    I will buy you a drink

    if I see you tomorrow.

    Kita sering menggunakan unless yang artinya jika… tidak’.

    Rumus

    (Klausa IF)

    (Induk Kalimat)

    Unless you hand in your homework,

    I won’t mark it.

    Artinya

    If you don’t hand in your homework,

    I won’t mark it.

    Atau

    (Induk Kalimat)

    (Klausa IF)

    I won’t mark your homework

    unless you hand it in.

    Artinya

    I won’t mark your homework

    if you don’t hand it in.

    Catatan: Kita tidak pernah menggunakan will, atau won’t dalam Klausa IF.

    Contoh:

    • If I have time today, I will phone my friend. = I will phone my friend, if I have time today.
    • If I go to England, I will buy some Cheddar cheese. = I will buy some Cheddar cheese, if I go to England.

    Conditional Tipe II

    Digunakan untuk mengekspresikan situasi yang tidak nyata di masa sekarang atau masa yang akan datang. Tipe ini digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sebuah harapan. Tenses yang digunakan dalam klausa IF adalah Past Simple Tense.

    Rumus

    (Klausa IF)

    (Induk Kalimat)

    If I won the lottery,

    I would buy a new house.

    Atau

    (Induk Kalimat)

    (Klausa IF)

    I would buy a new house

    if I won the lottery.

    Catatan: Jangan gunakan would atau wouldn’t dalam Klausa IF.

    Contoh:

    • If I were you, I wouldn’t do that. = I wouldn’t do that, if I were you.
    • If I had more time, I would do more on my websites. = I would do more on my websites, if I had more time.

    Conditional Tipe III

    Digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sebuah kondisi di masa yang lampau yang tidak mungkin akan terjadi lagi. Sering digunakan untuk mengkritik atau penyesalan. Tenses yang digunakan dalam Klausa IF adalah Past Perfect Tense.

    Rumus

    (Klausa IF)

    (Induk Kalimat)

    If I had worked harder,

    I would have passed my exam.

    If I had worked harder,

    I could have passed my exam.

    If I had worked harder,

    I should have passed my exam.

    Atau

    (Induk Kalimat)

    (Klausa IF)

    I would have passed my exam

    if I had worked harder.

    I could have passed my exam

    if I had worked harder.

    I should have passed my exam

    if I had worked harder.

    Catatan: Jangan gunakan would have atau wouldn’t have, dll dalam Klausa IF.

    Contoh:

    • If I hadn’t helped you, you would have failed. = You would have failed, if I hadn’t helped you.
    • If it had been sunny, we could have gone out. = We could have gone out, if it had been.

    Sumber :

    http://ismailmidi.com/berita-140-conditional-sentences.html

     

     
  • ami26chan 3:44 am on December 6, 2011 Permalink | Reply  

    Passive Voice Questions and Negative Statements 

    Examples of Passive Voice Questions :
    1.Were you not shown the sights?
    2. Is she not being shown the sights?
    3. Will he not have been shown the sights?
    4. Should we not be shown the sights?
    5. Is he not respected by everyone?
    6. Should she not be consulted?
    7. Is she being shown the sights?
    8. Were you shown the sights?
    9. Will he have been shown the sights?
    10. Should we be shown the sights?

    Examples of Passive Voice Negative Statements :
    1. We could not have been seen from the island.
    2. They were not being kept under observation.
    3. They were not expected at six o’clock.
    4. He will not be asked to participate.
    5. You were not shown the sights.
    6. She is not being shown the sights.
    7. He will not have been shown the sights.
    8. We should not be shown the sights.
    9. It is not being dealt with satisfactorily.
    10.You will not be held responsible.

    source :

    http://englishcourse3final.fullblog.com.ar/reported-speech-and-passive-voice.html

     
  • ami26chan 3:34 am on December 6, 2011 Permalink | Reply  

    Modifier.. 

    Modifier berfungsi untuk menerangkan waktu (modifier of time), menerangkan tempat (modifier of place), atau menerangkan cara dalam melakukan kegiatan (modifier of manner). Modifier pada umumnya berupa prepositional phrase (yaitu sekelompok kata yang dimulai oleh kata depan dan diakhiri oleh noun). Misalnya: in the morning (pada pagi hari), on the table (di atas meja), at the university (di universitas).

    Selain itu, modifier dapat juga berupa single adverb (misalnya: yesterday (kemarin), outdoors (luar gedung), hurriedly (dengan buru-buru) atau adverbial phrase (misalnya: last night (tadi malam), next year (tahun depan). Modifier adalah menjawab pertanyaan ‘when’, where, dan ‘how’.

    Contoh :

    1. John bought a book at the bookstore (John membeli sebuah buku di toko buku)
    2. Yeyes was swimming in the swimming pool at 4 pm. yesterday. (Yeyes sedang berenang di kolam renang jam 4 sore kemarin)
    3. My father is driving very fast. (Ayahku sedang mengendarai (mobil) dengan sangat cepat)
    4. The milk is in the refrigerator. (Susunya ada di dalam kulkas)
    5. We usually eat dinner at 7 pm. (Kami biasanya makan malam jam 7).

    Perhatikan:

    1. Modifier of time biasanya diungkapkan paling akhir jika kalimat tersebut memiliki lebih dari satu modifier.
    2. Tidak semua kalimat membutuhkan modifier.

    Sumber :

    http://swarabhaskara.com/sentence-components/modifier-keterangan/

     
  • ami26chan 3:24 am on December 6, 2011 Permalink | Reply  

    Intransitive Verb 

    An intransitive verb is an action verb, but it does not have a direct object. The action ends or is modified by an adverb or adverb phrase rather than being transferred to some person or object.

    Typically, an adverb or prepositional phrase modifies an intransitive verb or the verb ends the sentence.

    To determine whether a verb is intransitive ask whether the action is done in some way, in some direction or to some degree. Does a noun receive the action of the verb? If it does, then the verb is transitive and the person or thing that receives its action is the direct object.

    [In the following examples, the intransitive verb is bold and the modifier is underlined.]

    • The man decided against a plea bargain.
      • The subject (the man) did something (decided) a particular way (against).
    • He refused because of his immaturity, not his lack of contrition.
      • The subject (He) did something (refused) for a particular reason (because of his immaturity).
    • Alice complained bitterly.
      • The subject (Alice) did something (complained) to a particular degree (bitterly).
    • At the end of the Roaring ’20s, the incarceration index rose slightly.
      • The subject (the index) did something (rose) in a particular direction (slightly).
    • When faced with the problem, the scholar paused.
      • The subject (scholar) did something (paused) at a particular time (when faced with the problem).
    • Earl fell.
      • The subject (Earl) did something (fell) and the action did not transfer to someone or something.

    The adverb or prepositional phrase answers a question about the verb:

    The subject did something WHERE?

    • If Charlie had run into the street, he could have been injured.
    • The turtle may live in a small area of Arizona.
    • In 1973, the incarceration number inched upward.
    • Jordan drove into the lane.

    The subject did something WHEN?

    • Thousands of cranes will return in the spring.
    • The number climbed in 1974 and in 1975.
    • Walter Payton died near the end of the century.
    • The company’s leader collapsed during a meeting.

    The subject did something HOW or TO WHAT DEGREE?

    • The statistics come in any form you like.
    • Politicians and the public are complaining loudly.
    • His blood pressure kept climbing steadily.
    • She worked with care and precision.

    The subject did something WHY?

    • Our elected officials listen because we vote.
    • Shoshana’s grades improved with the help of a tutor.
    • Germany’s expedition leader collapsed from the effort.
    • Elise competed for her family.

    source:

    http://www.grammaruntied.com/verbs/intransitive.html

     
  • ami26chan 3:21 am on December 6, 2011 Permalink | Reply  

    If-Clause and Wish 

    If – Clause

    Type I

    Function :

    Probable action/result in the future according to a real condition You’ll catch the train if you leave before ten.Form :

    if / unless/ if……. not + present tense     +          future I: shall/will/can/may/might + verb
    if – clause                                                          main clause


    example :
    If I learn my vocabulary, I’ll get a good mark 
    if – clause                       main clause

    shall / will / can / may / might + verb + present tense          +     if + simple present
    main clause                                                                   if – clause

    example :
    I’ll get a good mark if I learn my vocabulary

     Type II

    Function :

    • Possible action/result according to a less probable condition in the future

    We’d have enough money for a new car if you found a good job.

     

    • Fantasized result or action according to an unreal (untrue) condition in the present

    We’d buy a Rolls Royce if we were rich.
    Form :
    if/unless/if…..not past tense ,  +  conditional I : should/could,would/’d/might + verb
    if-clause                                                       main clause

    example :  If I learnt my vocabulary, I’d get a good mark

    or the other way round :  I’d get a good mark if I learnt my vocabulary.

    Type III

    Function :

    •  If- clause:       unreal condition: the condition can’t be fulfilled any longer, because it should have happened in the past, but didn’t.
    • main clause:  the consequence can’t take place any more, because the condition couldn’t be fulfilled.

    If I had learnt more (but I didn’t  learn=unreal condition), I would have got a better mark.
    (So I didn’t get a  better mark= impossible  consequence)

    or the other way round:

    I would have got a better mark
    (So I didn’t get a better mark= impossible consequence) if I had learnt more (but I didn’t  learn=unreal
    condition)

    Form :
    If/unless/if…not past perfect,     +    conditional II: should/could/would/might + have + verb 

                If I had + -ed or 3rd form,                 + -ed or 3rd form

    if-clause                                                                  main clause

    example : If I had learnt my vocabulary, I would  have got a good mark
    or the other way round :
    I would have got a good mark if I had learnt my vocabulary.

    Wish

    Definition :

     

    Similar to conditional sentences are those that use “wish” to express something isn’t true now, or it wasn’t true in the past.

     

    Form :

    Subject  1+ wish (that) + subject 2 + V2.

    Subject  1+ wish (that) + subject 2 + were +NV=Non Verb.

     

    note : ‘that’ is optionally.

    Examples :

    • I wish that Sani spoke english fluently. ( In fact : Sani doesn’t speak english fluently)
    • I wish Jacob were coming to class. (In fact : Jacob isn’t coming to class)
    • I wish books were not expensive. ( Books are very expensive now)
    • I wish I had more money.(In fact, I don’t have more money)
    • She wishes he would talk to her more often.
    • They wish they hadn’t bought that house.
    • Yesterday Tom moved his chair and hurt his back. Now he wishes he hadn’t done that.
    • Tony wishes he had a job as a radio announcer.(he doesn’t have this job)
    • I wish I knew the answer. (I don’t know the answer)

     

     

    source :

    http://www.learnamericanenglishonline.com/Orange%20Level/O15%20Using%20Wish.html

    http://basyirdotcom.blogspot.com/2010/10/kalimat-pengandaiansubjunctive-2.html

    http://www.kfmaas.de/gram_if.html

     
  • ami26chan 7:51 am on November 8, 2011 Permalink | Reply  

    Object Complement in English 

    Object kalimat atau complement berfungsi untuk melengkapi predicate atau verb. Letak object kalimat adalah setelah kata kerja. Object kalimat adalah menjawab pertanyaan ‘what’ (apa) dan ‘whom’ (siapa). Hampir semua yang dapat digunakan sebagai subject kalimat, juga dapat digunakan sebagai object kalimat. Perkecualianya hanya pada bentuk pronoun (i.e. dari subject pronoun menjadi objeck pronoun atau reciprocal pronoun), dan kata there. Jika kata there berada setelah verb, there berfungsi sebagai modifier.

    Jadi, pada umumnya object kalimat dapat berupa:

    1. Single nouns (contoh 1-3)
    2. Noun phrases (contoh 4-6)
    3. Noun clauses (contoh 7-9)
    4. Object pronouns (contoh 10-12)
    5. Reciprocal pronouns (contoh (13-15)
    6. Infinitives (contoh 16-18)
    7. Gerunds (contoh 19-21)

    Berikut hanya diberikan 3 contoh untuk tiap elemen kalimat yang dapat digunakan sebagai object kalimat.

    Contoh:

    1. We need lime to reduce soil acidity. (Kita butuh kapur untuk mengurangi kemasaman tanah).Note: lime juga berarti jeruk nipis. I usually add lime on my meat ball soup. (Meat ball soup = bakso).
    2. Plants absorb water and nutrients from soil (Tanaman-tanaman mengabsorbsi/ menyerap air dan hara dari tanah).
    3. She saw John at the movie last night. (Dia melihat John di gedung bioskop tadi malam). Contoh yang lain penggunaan single nouns sebagai complement dapat dibaca di topik: Single nouns .
    4. My father drives an old car. (Ayah saya mengendari sebuah mobil tua).
    5. He wants to drink some water. (Dia ingin minum sedikit/sejumlah air).
    6. John bought a new laptop yesterday. (John membeli sebuah laptop baru kemarin). Contoh yang lain penggunaan noun phrases sebagai complement dapat dibaca di topik: Noun phrases.
    7. I still don’t know how to make her fall in love with me. (Saya masih belum tahu cara membuat dia jatuh cinta kepada saya). Gunakan preposition with jika mengikuti ekspresi fall in love, bukanto.
    8. It seems that she is studying hard. (Tampak bahwa dia sedang belajar keras).
    9. They haven’t decided what they should do. (Mereka belum memutuskan apa yang mereka seharusnya lakukan). Contoh yang lain penggunaan noun clause sebagai complement dapat dibaca di topik: Noun clauses.
    10. Do you love her?
    11. He sent me his pictures. (Dia mengirimi saya foto-fotonya).
    12. We will invite them. Contoh yang lain penggunaan object pronoun sebagai complement dapat dibaca di topik: Object pronouns.
    13. My sister cut herself. (Saudara perempuan saya terluka (misalnya oleh pisau) karena keteledorannya sendiri). Dia kurang hati-hati pakai pisau.
    14. That arrogant man is very proud of himself. (Cowok sombong itu sangat bangga dengan dirinya sendiri).
    15. You all take care of yourselves. Note: Gunakan yourselves jika you plural. Contoh yang lain penggunaan reciprocal/reflexive pronoun sebagai complement dapat dibaca di topik: Reciprocal pronouns.
    16. The doctors have decided to operate the patient.
    17. We need to go out to buy some food.
    18. Marini began to write a poem. (poem = puisi). Contoh yang lain penggunaan infinitives sebagai complement dapat dibaca di topik: Infinitives.
    19. The boy hasn’t admitted stealing my calculator. (steal = mencuri)
    20. My cousin regretted not coming here. (cousin = sepupu; regret = menyesal).
    21. We are looking forward to your coming back to this blog soon. (look forward to = sangat mengharapkan/menantikan). Contoh yang lain penggunaan gerunds sebagai complement dapat dibaca di topik: Gerunds.

    Apakah semua kalimat membutuhkan atau punya object kalimat?

    Jawabannya adalah NO. Hal ini dapat ditemui pada kalimat intransitif, seperti pada contoh berikut ini:

    1. The price of fertilizers is sharply increasing. (Harga pupuk sedang meningkat dengan tajam). Kalimat ini hanya mengandung: S + V + adverb, but no object.
    2. Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts. (Fotosinthesis berlangsung di dalam kloroplas). Kalimat ini hanya mengandung: S + V + modifier of place (i.e. in choroplasts). Bedakan dengan: Photosynthesis requires chloroplasts to take place.
    3. Dani, Yeyes and I did not go to a restaurant last night. (Dani, Yeyes dan saya tidak pergi ke sebuah restoran tadi malam). Bedakan dengan: Many artists have built restaurants to cover their expenses when they are no longer being artists.
    4. The bank closes at 2 o’clock. (Bank itu tutup jam 2).
    5. The sun always rises in the east. (Matahari selalu terbit di timur).
    source : http://swarabhaskara.com/sentence-components/object-kalimat-complement/
     
  • ami26chan 7:29 am on November 8, 2011 Permalink | Reply  

    Functions of Verbs in the English Language 

    Verb

    Effective English language communication usually requires that each sentence contain a subject and a verb. The subject is sometimes defined as a person, a place, or a thing. The verb conveys an understanding of the action expressed, or it conveys the state of the subject.

    action and state
    Tom hit the ball.

    The verb is hit. Tom acted; he hit something. The verb describes the action. Effective communication also requires identification of the thing Tom hit. The object that Tom hit was a ball. The object of the verb hit is the ball.

    The sky is blue.

    The verb, is, conveys the state of the subject. The verb does not convey a sense of action. The sky has a blue state. Blue is the color that describes the sky. The word blue is an adjective in the sentence, “The sky is blue.”

    One set of terms used to describe verbs is transitive and intransitive. Transitive verbs convey a sense of action and the sentence identifies whom or what the subject addresses.

    Transitive verbs convey a sense of action and the sentence identifies whom or what the subject addresses.

    Tom kicked the ball. The verb is kicked. The verb conveys a sense of action, and the sentence reveals what Tom kicked.
    The principal punished him. The verb is punished. The verb conveys a sense of action, and the sentence indicates whom the principal punished.

    An action verb can be transitive or it can be intransitive. Consider the following examples.

    I parked the car. The verb conveys a sense of action, and the sentence indicates what I parked. The verb is transitive.
    I parked bravely. The verb conveys a sense of action, but the sentence indicates how I parked. The verb is intransitive.
    I parked yesterday. The verb conveys a sense of action, but the sentence indicates when I parked. The verb is intransitive.
    I parked there. The verb conveys a sense of action, but the sentence indicates where I parked. The verb is intransitive.

    Some sentences convey a complete thought utilizing only a subject and a verb. Consider the following example.

    Birds fly. The sentence constitutes a complete thought, one that must have teased the imaginations of dreamers for centuries. “Birds fly. Why, oh why, can’t I?” The verb conveys a sense of action, but does not require an object. The verb is intransitive because it is not necessary to relate the subject’s action to an object. Transitive verbs have objects; intransitive verbs do not have objects.

    The verb be is intransitive because the verb does not convey a sense of action. The words is, am, are, was, were, and been are forms of the verb be. The following sentences are composed with intransitive verbs that convey a sense of state, do not convey a sense of action, and do not require an object.

    Thomas is slovenly.
    I am hungry.
    Americans are generous.
    Summer was short.
    The students were rowdy.
    We have been there.

    Archaically, some people used the verb be to express present tense. Example: I be going to the circus. We now use the verb am. Example: I am going to the circus.

    The following sentence causes some controversy. The sentence is correct. Why is the sentence correct?

    It is I.

    The prounoun I is nominative case. The prounoun me is objective case. The verb is, a form of the verb be, does not take an object, and therefore, the pronoun cannot be in the objective case. Casual conversation produces, It’s me, but that is not grammatically correct.


    Verbs can also convey a sense of time.

    verb tense

    Verbs convey a sense of action or they convey the state of an entity. Verbs may also convey a sense of time. They may convey a sense that an event occurred in the past or that the event is presently occurring or that the event will occur in the future. The spelling of the verb may change for some of the expressions of time or auxiliary words may be required with the verb. The organization of verbs according to sense of time is called conjugation. The word tense means time.

    We shall first explore the ways to express time utilizing the verb take for the demonstration. The example sentences have been written in first person (singular). First person is something I do. Second person is something you do. Third person is something she does (or he). Below are examples of the present verb tense, the past verb tense, and the future verb tense.

    I take medicine for an allergy. (present tense)
    I took medicine for an allergy. (past tense)
    I will take medicine for an allergy. (future tense)

    Notice the spelling change for past tense and the inclusion of an auxiliary word for future tense.

    An expanded set of verb tenses is presented below. Some new grammar terms are also presented. The new terms are potentially confusing. The terms will be explained. However, the way we write the sentences is more important than the verb tense terminology.

    present tense
    I take medicine for an allergy. (present tense)
    I do take medicine for an allergy. (present emphatic tense)
    I am taking medicine for an allergy. (present progressive tense)
    I have taken allergy medicine. (present perfect tense)
    I have been taking allergy medicine for several years. (present perfect progressive tense)

    past tense
    I took medicine for an allergy. (past tense)
    I did take medicine for an allergy. (past emphatic)
    I was taking medicine for an allergy. (past progressive)
    I had taken medication for sometime before the allergy season. (past perfect)
    I had been taking allergy medication, regularly, until I moved here. (past perfect progressive)

    future tense
    I shall take allergy medicine. (future tense)
    I will take allergy medicine. (future emphatic)
    I shall be taking medicine for an allergy. (future progressive)
    I shall have taken three allergy pills by noon today. (future perfect)
    I shall have been taking this allergy medicine for a year by the time the improved product becomes available. (future perfect progressive)

    The emphatic form of the verb infers the speaker’s degree of determination. The construction of the verb changes when the emphatic form is used. However, the sense of time does not change when the emphatic verb form is used in place of the less emphatic form.

    Emphatic tense is used in a popular ceremony.

    Question:  Do you take this (person) to be your lawful wedded (spouse)?
    Answer:    I do. (Emphatically, I do!)

    Historically, there has been a distinction between shall and will.

    I shall return.I will return. (emphatic)

    The verb applications are reversed when employed in second person.

    You will return.You shall return. (emphatic)

    The conventional application of shall and will is not rigorously observed in American English at the beginning of the Twenty-first Century. There is no jail time if you substitute the word will for the word shall.

    NOTE: If a person is angry it is easier to pronounce will than it is to pronounce shall. It is probable that an irritated parent would say: You will clean your room before you go to the beach!

    verb tense definitions

    Grammarians have noticed some subtle differences in meaning when the expanded tense expressions are used. Those differences are identifed below.

    present perfect tense

    have done something

    Present perfect sentences convey a sense that an action started in the past and may have terminated in the past or may be continuing in the present.

    Example: I have trained for this job.

    present progressive tense

    am doing something

    Present progressive sentences convey a sense that a present action is continuing.

    Example: The butterflies are arriving at the rate of a thousand an hour.

    present perfect progressive tense

    have been doing something

    Present perfect progressive sentences convey a sense that an action started in the past and continues in the present.

    Example: I have been learning English grammar since I arrived two years ago.


    past perfect tense

    had done something

    Past perfect sentences convey a sense that an action occurred in the past and was completed before a subsequent past action occurred.

    Example: Several attempts to build the Panama Canal had failed before the Americans completed the project.

    past progressive tense

    was/were doing something

    Past progressive sentences convey a sense that a past action occurred over a span of time.

    Example: The guards were sleeping while the attack occurred.

    past perfect progressive tense

    had been doing something

    Past perfect progressive sentences convey a sense that a past action started at an indefinite past time and continued until a definite past time.

    Example: The peas had been growing on their own until Mendel found them.


    future perfect tense

    will have done something

    Future perfect sentences convey a sense that an action will be completed at or by a future time.

    Example: By noon the doctor will have administered the vaccinations.

    future progressive tense

    will be doing something

    Future progressive sentences convey a sense of future continuing action.

    Example: I will be coaching the soccer team next season.

    future perfect progressive tense

    will have been doing something

    Future perfect progressive sentences convey a sense that a continuing future action will be completed before another future event occurs.

    Example: I will have been teaching three years as of June 7th.

    NOTE. Do not dwell on these esoteric definitions. Concentrate on using the verbs correctly.


    People once suffered from undulant fever, a debilitating disease caused by bacteria in cow’s milk. A French citizen, Louis Pasteur, developed a process to destroy the bacteria without altering the milk. We can now write the following sentence.

    The dairy company pasteurizes the milk.

    A man’s name became a verb in the English language.

    English verbs are derived from several languages. Consequently, the spelling changes required for the various tense applications are not uniform. Some examples of verb conjugation are given below. Two terms are introduced. Present participle is a verb form that requires the (-ing) suffix. Present participle verb forms express continuing or incomplete action. Past participle verb forms express completed action, but may also infer continuing action. A participle is a verb that can also be used as an adjective.

    verb conjugation examples
    present tense       present participle          past tense         past participle
    begin                     beginning                        began                    begun
    bite                            biting                              bit                        bitten
    break                      breaking                        broke                       broken
    dig                           digging                          dug                           dug
    draw                        drawing                        drew                          drawn
    fall                            falling                           fell                           fallen
    fly                              flying                         flew                           flown
    forbid                    forbidding                   forbade*                forbidden*
    hit                              hitting                          hit                              hit
    lay                             laying                       laid                               laid
    lie (recline)               lying                        lay                                 lain
    lie (untrue)                lying                      lied                                 lied
    ride                            riding                     rode                               ridden
    run                          running                     ran                                   run
    set                            setting                      set                                    set
    sit                              sitting                      sat                                    sat
    sing                          singing                   sang                                   sung
    speak                      speaking                 spoke                                spoken
    swear                       swearing                swore                                  sworn
    swim                      swimming               swam                                  swum
    wear                       wearing                    wore                                   worn

    *Note: Dictionaries list alternative (secondary) spelling of forbade and forbidden.

    Example sentences that utilize some of these verbs are presented below. Notice that the present participle form of a verb requires use of the auxiliary word be or a derivation of be. The past participle form of a verb requires use of the auxiliary word have or a derivation of have.

    Continued at page 2 (verb).

    Verb Application Examples
    I begin each day with joy. (present)
    I am beginning to understand English grammar. (present participle)
    I began music lessons yesterday. (past)
    I have begun to appreciate music. (past participle)
    We can also write the following sentence.I have begun to appreciate music. (present perfect tense)
    We have applied two names to the same verb form. Present perfect tense identifies a time function. Past participle is a name for a category of verb that can also be used as an adjective.We fly C 17s. (present)
    We are flying to Rheinmein. (present participle verb form)
    We flew over the coast at sunrise. (past)
    We have flown through hostile fire. (past participle verb form)You dig here. (present)
    You are digging in the wrong place. (present participle verb form)
    You dug that hole in the wrong place. (past)
    You have dug the hole in the wrong place. (past participle verb form)

    She draws very well. (present)
    She is drawing a new sketch. (present participle verb form)
    She drew the school logo. (past)
    She has drawn several prize winning designs. (past participle verb form)

    I lay bricks for my living. (present)
    I am laying a brick facade adjacent to the entrance. (present participle verb form)
    I laid the bricks for the sidewalk in front of city hall. (past)
    I have laid thousands of bricks. (past participle verb form)

    I lie on the beach every evening. (present)
    I am lying on the beach, and I am talking to you on my cell phone. (present participle verb form)
    I lay on the sofa yeaterday. (past)
    I have lain on this beach many times. (past participle verb form)

    Do you lie? (present)
    You are lying to me. (present participle verb form)
    You lied to him. (past)
    You have lied about your grades. (past participle verb form)

    They set dinner tables to meet their school expenses. (present)
    They are setting the tables for the luncheon. (present participle verb form)
    They set the dinner tables for the banquet. (past)
    They have set tables for many school functions. (past participle verb form)

    I sit in the leather chair. (present)
    I am sitting by the window. (present participle verb form)
    I sat at my desk for an hour. (past)
    I have sat on that hard bench. (past participle verb form)

    I sing in the choir. (present)
    I am singing the school song. (present participle verb form)
    I sang at the civic center. (past)
    I have sung the Battle Hymn of the Republic. (past participle vrb form)

    He speaks professionally. (present)
    He is speaking at the library. (present participle verb form)
    He spoke to the students about the consequences of smoking. (past)
    He has spoken to members of Congress. (past participle verb form)

    They swim competitively. (present)
    They are swimming today. (present participle verb form)
    They swam before breakfast. (past)
    They have swum the English Channel. (past participle verb form)

    I bring good news. (present)
    I am bringing the trophy home. (present particple verb form)
    I brought the team to the track field. (past)
    I have brought the first aid kit to team practice many times. (past participle verb form)
    Most of us do not memorize all of the verbs in the English language. How can we determine the correct spelling for each form of the verb? We can use a dictionary. I used the The American Heritage Dictionary, Second College Edition for the following example. I chose the verb, take, for the example. The verb and its derivations are listed in the following order.

    take, took, taken, taking, takes
    The classification of each verb is shown below.

    take (present tense)
    took (past tense)
    taken (past participle)
    taking (present participle)
    takes (present tense, third person singular)

    There is a special information section in the front part of the dictionary that explains the listing pattern, i.e., present, past, past participle, present participle, and present–third person singular.

    NOTE: Present tense, third person singular could be expressed as follows.

    He takes calculus on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday.

    Some verbs conjugate differently. The verb, bring, and its derivations are displayed in the dictionary in the following pattern.

    bring, brought, bringing, brings
    The classification for this verb is shown below.

    bring (present tense)
    brought (past tense and past participle)
    bringing (present participle)
    brings (present tense, third person singular)


    Voice

    English sentences may be written in active or passive voice. If the subject of the sentence acts, the sentence is written in active voice. If the subject of the sentence is passive, the sentence is written in passive voice. Consider the following sentence examples.

    Mr. Clayton hosted* the reception.

    The reception was hosted by Mr. Clayton.

    Mr. Clayton is the subject of the first sentence. Mr. Clayton acted. The sentence is written in active voice.

    Reception is the subject of the second sentence. The subject did not act. The subject was passive. The sentence is written in passive voice.

    Notice that the verb used in the passive sentence requires an auxiliary word.

    *Some grammarians contend that the word, host, is not a verb. Americans routinely use the word, host, as a verb.

    Sheep graze in this pasture.

    The sheep were shorn for the exhibit at the county fair.

    Sheep is the subject of the first sentence. The sheep act; they graze. The sentence is written in active voice.

        Sheep is the subject of the second sentence, but the subject is passive. The sheep are passive. The sentence is written in pasive voice.

     
  • ami26chan 7:23 am on November 8, 2011 Permalink | Reply  

    Subject-Verb Agreement 

    Basic Rule.

    The basic rule states that a singular subject takes a singular verb, while a plural subject takes a plural verb.

    NOTE: The trick is in knowing whether the subject is singular or plural. The next trick is recognizing a singular or plural verb.

    Hint: Verbs do not form their plurals by adding an s as nouns do. In order to determine which verb is singular and which one is plural, think of which verb you would use with he or she and which verb you would use with they.

    Example: talks, talk
    Which one is the singular form? Which word would you use with he? We say, “He talks.” Therefore, talks is singular. We say, “They talk.” Therefore, talk is plural.

    Rule 1. Two singular subjects connected by or or nor require a singular verb.
    Example: My aunt or my uncle is arriving by train today.

     

    Rule 2. Two singular subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor require a singular verb as in Rule 1.
    Examples: Neither Juan nor Carmen is available.
    Either Kiana or Casey is helping today with stage decorations.

     

    Rule 3. When I is one of the two subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor, put it second and follow it with the singular verb am.
    Example: Neither she nor I am going to the festival.

     

    Rule 4. When a singular subject is connected by or or nor to a plural subject, put the plural subject last and use a plural verb.
    Example: The serving bowl or the plates go on that shelf.

     

    Rule 5. When a singular and plural subject are connected by either/or or neither/nor, put the plural subject last and use a plural verb.
    Example: Neither Jenny nor the others are available.

     

    Rule 6. As a general rule, use a plural verb with two or more subjects when they are connected by and.
    Example: A car and a bike are my means of transportation.

     

    Rule 7. Sometimes the subject is separated from the verb by words such as along with, as well as, besides, or not. Ignore these expressions when determining whether to use a singular or plural verb.
    Examples: The politician, along with the newsmen, is expected shortly.
    Excitement, as well as nervousness, is the cause
    of her shaking.

     

    Rule 8. The pronouns each, everyone, every one, everybody, anyone, anybody, someone, and somebody are singular and require singular verbs. Do not be misled by what follows of.
    Examples: Each of the girls sings well.
    Every one of the cakes is gone.
    NOTE: Everyone is one word when it means everybody. Every one is two words when the meaning is each one.

     

    Rule 9. With words that indicate portions—percent, fraction, part, majority, some, all, none, remainder, and so forth —look at the noun in your of phrase (object of the preposition) to determine whether to use a singular or plural verb. If the object of the preposition is singular, use a singular verb. If the object of the preposition is plural, use a plural verb.
    Examples: Fifty percent of the pie has disappeared.
    Pie is the object of the preposition of.
    Fifty percent of the pies have disappeared.
    Pies
    is the object of the preposition.
    One-third of the city is unemployed.
    One-third of the people are unemployed.NOTE: Hyphenate all spelled-out fractions.
    All of the pie is gone.
    All of the pies are gone.
    Some of the pie is missing.
    Some of the pies are missing.
    None of the garbage was picked up.
    None of the sentences were punctuated correctly.
    Of all her books, none have sold as well as the first one.

     

    NOTE: Apparently, the SAT testing service considers none as a singular word only. However, according to Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage, “Clearly none has been both singular and plural since Old English and still is. The notion that it is singular only is a myth of unknown origin that appears to have arisen in the 19th century. If in context it seems like a singular to you, use a singular verb; if it seems like a plural, use a plural verb. Both are acceptable beyond serious criticism” (p. 664).
    Rule 10. The expression the number is followed by a singular verb while the expression a number is followed by a plural verb.
    Examples: The number of people we need to hire is thirteen.
    A number of people have written in about this subject.

     

    Rule 11. When either and neither are subjects, they always take singular verbs.
    Examples: Neither of them is available to speak right now.
    Either of us is capable of doing the job.

     

    Rule 12. The words here and there have generally been labeled as adverbs even though they indicate place. In sentences beginning with here or there, the subject follows the verb.
    Examples: There are four hurdles to jump.
    There is a high hurdle to jump.

     

    Rule 13. Use a singular verb with sums of money or periods of time.
    Examples: Ten dollars is a high price to pay.
    Five years is the maximum sentence for that offense.

     

    Rule 14. Sometimes the pronoun who, that, or which is the subject of a verb in the middle of the sentence. The pronouns who, that, and which become singular or plural according to the noun directly in front of them. So, if that noun is singular, use a singular verb. If it is plural, use a plural verb.
    Examples: Salma is the scientist who writes/write the reports.
    The word in front of who is scientist, which is singular. Therefore, use the singular verb writes.
    He is one of the men who does/do the work.
    The word in front of who is men, which is plural. Therefore, use the plural verb do.

     

    Rule 15. Collective nouns such as team and staff may be either singular or plural depending on their use in the sentence.
    Examples: The staff is in a meeting.
    Staff is acting as a unit here.
    The staff are in disagreement about the findings.
    The staff are acting as separate individuals in this example.
    The sentence would read even better as:
    The staff members are in disagreement about the findings.

     

    Source : http://www.grammarbook.com/grammar/subjectVerbAgree.asp

     
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